In earlier lessons we saw how cell references in formulas automatically adjust to new locations when the formula is pasted into different cells.

Sometimes, when you copy and paste a formula, you don't want one or more cell references to change.

An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the addition of a dollar sign ($). It can precede the column reference or the row reference, or both. Examples of absolute referencing include:

Sometimes, when you copy and paste a formula, you don't want one or more cell references to change.

**Absolute reference**solves this problem. Absolute cell references in a formula always refer to the same cell or cell range in a formula. If a formula is copied to a different location, the absolute reference remains the same.An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the addition of a dollar sign ($). It can precede the column reference or the row reference, or both. Examples of absolute referencing include:

$A$2 | The column and the row do not change when copied. |

A$2 | The row does not change when copied. |

$A2 | The column does not change when copied. |

##### To Create an Absolute Reference:

- Enter the numbers you want to calculate (e,g., 34,567 in cell B2 and 1,234 in cell B3).
- Then, create a
**simple formula**(=B2+B3).

To create an absolute reference in the formula just created, insert a

**$ value**before the B (column reference) and 2 (row reference) in the reference to B2 so the new formula reads, (=$B$2+B3)**Copy and Paste**the formula to another adjacent cell. The formula now includes an absolute reference to B2, (=$B$2+D3).

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